Countries that suffer water shortages : America
  • Mexico
  • Peru

Water shortage in Mexico City has become an extremely worrying issue due to the lack of water.

Around 30% of water is lost due to leakages. If these leakages were avoided, a better use of the resources could be made, according to the General Director of IMTA, Dr. Polioptro Martínez Austria.

According to Antonio Fernández Esparza, manager of the Drinkable Water and Sewage Network Studies and Projects of Conagua, one of the main causes of the water shortage in Mexico is that the population has increased in 83 million inhabitants, from 25 million in 1950, to 108 million in 2009. Since 1990, 10 million people don't have access to drinkable water, especially in areas like Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Colima, Tlaxcala and Distrito Federal.

México is situated amongst the countries considered to have water difficulties; the area of Mexico City is said to be a basin of water shortage.

In this country there are huge regional differences in water availability; on top of that the population has increased largely and the industrial activities have determined the fact that there is less water. Two big areas of natural water availability stand out due to their geography and climate: the first of them includes the south and the southeast and the other includes the north, centre and northwest of the country. The natural availability in the first, is 7 times larger than in the rest of the national territory.

Mexico Valley has water shortage or hydrological stress, as it registers less than 900 cubic metres of water per inhabitant each year.

In Mexico the water quality problems are severe and are they are not addressed the same way as other services.

Water shortage is one of the most dramatic effects of climate change, and Peru will be one of the most affected countries.

The deterioration of water quality in Peru is one of the most serious problems the country is suffering. Only in Lima, Peru's capital, more tan 400 million cubic meters of wastewater are spilled every year, a volume that could be recycled and turned into clean water. In addition, the surface water resources of the rivers Caplina, Sama and Locumba in Tacna have already been declared exhausted and there are serious problems in the basins of the Moquegua, Arequipa and Puno.

Water in Peru is a problem that has to be dealt with urgently because, as this country faces climate change, it is estimated that by 2012 most of the Peruvian glaciers will be gone, due to the fact that they have already lost about 2,000 square kilometers of ice, equivalent to over 20% of the area of all glaciers in the world. This 20% is the equivalent to the amount of water that Lima, the Peruvian capital, uses in approximately ten years.

In the picture we see the river Rimac in the city of Lima, which is one of the most affected due to contamination. We can also see that there is poor distribution of this resource in the poorest parts of our capital. In the last picture we see some of the poorest areas of the city of Lima, where population growth has generated human settlements with very low water quality due to these areas not having an infrastructure for drinkable water.

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